Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease of dogs and other mammals that primarily affects the liver or kidneys. Leptospires are known as “aquatic spirochetes.” The organism thrives in water and they have a helical or spiral shape with a characteristic hook on one or both ends. There are many species and serovars of leptospira, some of which cause disease in dogs. There is no evidence that Leptospirosis causes clinical disease in cats.
How common is leptospirosis?
Infections of dogs with L. icterohemorrhagiae and L. canicola are uncommon in areas where widespread vaccination of dogs is routine.
How are dogs infected?
Leptospira bacteria are carried mainly by rats and other rodents, but can also be carried by almost any mammalian species, including people. Infected or recovered “carrier” dogs may act as a source of the infection.
What are the signs of leptospirosis?
Many leptospira infections go undetected, but other cases can be life-threatening. There are three main forms of the disease:
1. Hemorrhagic (bleeding)
2. Icteric or jaundice (liver)
3. Renal (kidney)
How is leptospirosis diagnosed?
Because the clinical signs are variable and easily confused with other diseases, definitive diagnosis can be difficult. There are no readily available rapid and definitive laboratory tests. Taking blood samples during infection and again in the recovery period and showing an increase in antibodies to leptospira in the blood serum (at least a four-fold increase in antibody titer) is supportive of the diagnosis.
What is the treatment?
Antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin are reasonably effective if begun early. Most affected dogs require intensive care in the veterinary hospital.
How can leptospirosis be prevented?
The vaccine for lepto-spirosis is not always part of the routine vaccination program for all dogs. Your veterinarian will consider the risks and options for your pet.
NOTE: Leptospirosis can be transmitted to people, so owners of dogs that may have the disease should avoid contact between the owner’s bare skin and their dog’s urine, and wear rubber gloves when cleaning up any areas the dog may have soiled. The organism is readily killed by household disinfectants or a dilute bleach solution
You’re a pet owner. Bringing a new pet home is an exciting experience but requires some preparation. That adorable ball of energy covered in fur will interact with just about every inch of living space and your life is about to be enriched in ways you’ve never dreamed possible.Prepping your house, wardrobe and routines ahead of time can help ease the transition for both you and your new family member. Here are some tips to welcome a new pet into your household and ensure a smooth transition for everyone:
Pet-proof your home. Just as you would baby-proof a house for an infant, make sure to pet-proof your house for your furry friend. Rearrange your living space by placing anything breakable at a higher level. Baby gates work well to prevent dogs from entering areas of the house that aren’t safe for them, or places you don’t want them to be. Remember, cats can jump extreme distances, so clean off the top of your cabinets and refrigerator in case your kitty decides those are his or her favorite places to play “hide and pounce.”
Manage pet hair on your clothing. There are many joys of owning a pet but many would agree, if they have a “pet peeve” about their four-legged friends, it’s the shedding. A surprising 57 percent of women are hesitant to wear black clothing around cats and dogs because of the lint and pet hair it attracts, according to a Procter & Gamble study conducted in August. However, you don’t need to change your wardrobe just to snuggle with your new pet. Use the Bounce Dryer Bar or Bounce dryer sheets when doing the laundry to help repel pet hair from your black clothing. Visit the Bounce Facebook page at www.facebook.com/bounce for more information.
Prepare for pet odor. A dog or cat will introduce new smells to your house. You can help contain these pet smells with frequent vacuuming, disinfecting toys on a regular basis, and clumping and deodorizing litter. Regularly bathing your dog is an important part of keeping their skin and coats clean and odor-free. Also, brushing your dog or cat’s teeth can help keep his or her mouth healthy and help prevent bad breath.
Help your new pal adjust. Place a cozy bed in several rooms where your pet will be allowed, giving him or her a comfortable place to snuggle and sleep. This will help encourage your pet to stay off the furniture. Keep in mind that your pet has a highly developed sense of smell, and a brand new bed from the store could contain strange odors to him. Rubbing a blanket or old towel on your pet’s bed can help make the smells of the bed more familiar and friendly.
You’ll enjoy spending time with your new four-legged friend as they become a part of your family. With your home and wardrobe prepped for his or her enthusiasm and fur, you won’t have to worry about much except making your pet feel welcome.
During times of celebration, friends and family often gather in our homes.
At these times, it is easy to overlook potential hazards to your dog’s health and safety.
In order to prevent mishaps for your cuddly companions, it is important that you recognize these hidden dangers.
My dog really seems to enjoy opening presents and playing with decorations. Is this okay?
Many dogs enjoy sniffing out boxes filled with tasty treats, and even items made with leather such as clothing or sports equipment.
Many of these items can cause an intestinal obstruction if eaten.
Even the wrapping paper can cause an intestinal obstruction if eaten, especially if it is made of foil or other indigestible material. Paintballs, the paint filled ‘ammunition’ used in the game of paintball is extremely hazardous to dogs and can cause death if eaten.
Ribbons and strings used to wrap gifts can be hazardous, especially to young puppies who delight in playing with and eventually chewing and swallowing these items, that can become tangled up in the intestinal tract. As the intestines attempt to move this mass of foreign material (called a “linear foreign body” due to its shape) the rough or abrasive material rubs against the walls of the intestine, causing inflammation and damage with each intestinal contraction.
An intestinal obstruction is a life-threatening emergency requiring surgery for correction.
If you want to let your puppy or dog open gifts or play with the wrappers, only do so while under your direct supervision. Better yet, don’t’ encourage this sort of play!
My dog likes to chew on cords. Can this be harmful?
Dangling cords of various types are tempting to dogs that like to play with string as well as young puppies that are teething and are chewing anything and everything. Puppies have extremely sharp teeth that can easily pierce the insulation around electric light cords or extension cords.
If a pet bites through an electrical cord that is plugged in, it could result in a severe burn to the tongue or an electrical shock that could damage the lungs or heart. This is an emergency requiring immediate veterinary attention.
I’ve heard that chocolate is toxic to dogs. Is this true?
Many people do not realize that chocolate can be a poison when eaten in large amounts, even to people!
Chocolate contains a chemical called theobromine, that has caffeine-like activities. Theobromine is used medicinally as a diuretic, heart stimulant, blood vessel dilator, and a smooth muscle relaxant.
Unsweetened or baking chocolate contains a much higher amount of the potentially toxic theobromine than milk chocolate (approximately 10-20 times the amount on average), but even milk chocolate can be dangerous in large enough amounts or to a small dog. For a dog weighing 22 pounds (10 kg), as little as 2 ounces (about 50 grams) of baking or dark chocolate or 30 ounces (about 0.8 kg) of good quality milk chocolate is toxic.
Clinical signs of chocolate poisoning include hyperexcitability, nervousness, vomiting, diarrhea and death.
What sort of festive plants are toxic to dogs?
Poinsettia sap can be irritating to the mouth and stomach of the dog that chews on or eats the leaves or stems of this festive plant.
Contrary to popular belief, poinsettia is not specifically toxic, but can cause intestinal upset.
Some mistletoe species are toxic, causing liver failure or seizures, while other species are only irritating to the intestinal tract if ingested. The fact that there are several types of mistletoe makes it difficult to predict the clinical signs of poisoning with this popular holiday trimming. It is wise to consider mistletoe to be a hazardous substance and keep it out of reach of pets and children.
Other seasonal plants that are toxic include daffodils and narcissi, spring bulbs that are commonly “forced” to bloom during the winter and bring a ‘breath of springtime’ into our homes.
I like to share our special meal with my dog as a treat on special occasions. Is there anything I should avoid?
We all like to include our pets in holiday meals along with the rest of the family, but try to keep in mind that sudden rich diet changes are likely to upset a pet’s stomach.
Vomiting and diarrhea are common medical problems that veterinarians see during any holiday time, and especially between Thanksgiving and New Year’s Day. If you wish to feed your dog a special treat, give only a small amount of table food on top or mixed in with its regular dinner. If you feed leftovers that contain a lot of fat, the pancreas may become overworked and inflamed. This serious and extremely painful condition is known as pancreatitis.
It usually requires hospitalization and intensive medical treatment; left untreated a severe case of pancreatitis can result in death.
Also, make sure that any string or packaging that was used during the preparation of roasts or turkeys is safely disposed of in a sealed garbage container that is placed out of your dog’s reach.
Most dogs cannot resist the temptation of a strategically placed garbage bag, and eating string or other indigestible material can potentially cause an intestinal obstruction.
If you leave an uncooked loaf of bread to rise on the counter, your dog may be unable to resist eating it. In the warmth of the stomach, the bread can continue to rise and cause a complete obstruction that the dog will be unable to pass. Other food items that are left out during the holiday season can also present risks to your dog. Therefore, you should always make sure that nothing has been inadvertently left within your dog’s reach.
By observing a few commonsense guidelines, you can share a safe and healthy celebration with your dog and give thanks for the companionship you enjoy with your four-legged family members.